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The parliament assigned early elections for May 2014.
The name is composed of two parts: "Euro" is short for Europe and "maidan" refers to Maidan Nezalezhnosti (Independence Square), the main square of Kiev, where the protests are centred.
It's now about ousting Yanukovych and his corrupt government; guiding Ukraine away from its 200-year-long, deeply intertwined and painful relationship with Russia; and standing up for basic human rights to protest, speak and think freely and to act peacefully without the threat of punishment.
A turning point came in late February, when enough members of the president's party fled or defected for the party to lose its majority in parliament, leaving the opposition large enough to form the necessary quorum.
Mr Alexander holds Bennelong by a safe margin, and it has been a long-term Liberal seat, but Labor's Maxine Mc Kew defeated then-Prime Minister John Howard in 2007.
He has conceded there is a chance he could lose, but said his time as a tennis player has taught him that "all you can concern yourself with is to play the game as best you can, and within the rules".
Yanukovych then fled to Ukraine's second largest city of Kharkiv, refusing to recognise the parliament's decisions.
The scope of the protests soon widened, with calls for the resignation of President Viktor Yanukovych and his government. During the Euromaidan, there were protests and clashes with police throughout Ukraine, especially at the Maidan in Kiev, which was occupied and barricaded by protesters.
Dozens of communist monuments were also toppled or destroyed.
The Government was elected with a one-seat majority, but with the loss of the two MPs, it will now be forced to rely on crossbenchers Rebecca Sharkie from the Nick Xenophon Team, and Independent Cathy Mc Gowan, for confidence and supply.
Labor has already declared it will exploit the Government's weak position in the Lower House, and possibly move motions to amend penalty rate laws or set up a banking royal commission.
Federal Government backbencher John Alexander has resigned from Parliament, meaning the Coalition has, at least temporarily, lost its majority in the Lower House.